Articles & Science Papers on Zoopharmacognosy

This page contains links to articles, science papers and books directly related to Zoopharmacognosy.  Also links regarding animal welfare and wellbeing, so it can become a helpful and comprehensive resource.  Ongoing in its development - please email me if there is a link you would like me to consider adding - feedback and suggestions always welcome!

Zoopharmacognosy Articles

Accessible and succinct overview on Zoopharmacognosy and its potential benefits:  "How self-healing animals could save humans:

A great “bite-sized” listing of Cosmos Magazine’s “Zoopharmacognosy Top 9” – from giraffes to starlings!

Well-written article by “SkepVet”, who concludes:  “So do animals self-medicate? I would say the answer is a qualified “yes.”

Some more great examples of different species that self-medicate, from the Quantum Biologist:

Zoopharmacognosy: Nature’s Pharmacy Used by Animals (*caution - Wikipedia references!)

Zoopharmacognosy Science Papers

Rounak, S., Apoorva, K. and Shweta, A. (2011). ZOOPHARMACOGNOSY (ANIMAL SELF MEDICATION): A REVIEW International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy IJRAP 2011, 2 (5) 1510-1512

Ansari, A.M., Khandelwaland N., and Kabra M. (2013). A Review on Zoopharmacognosy. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND CHEMICAL SCIENCESVol. 2 (1) Jan-Mar 2013 pp.246-253

Ramen, R. and Kandula, S. (2008)  Self-Medication in Wild Animals. Resonance Vol 13 (3) Mar 2008 pp.245-253

Current Evidence for Self-Medication in Primates: A Multidisciplinary Perspective. YEARBOOK OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 40:171–200 (1997). MICHAEL A. HUFFMAN Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Aichi, Japan

Huffman, M.A.  (2003). Animal self-medication and ethno-medicine: exploration and exploitation of the medicinal properties of plants. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society62, pp 371-381 (abstract only)

Herbal Extracts - Science papers and articles

Rose Otto (R. damascena) and it's capacity to reduce adrenal responses in humans by up to 30%:   Haze S., Sakai K. and Gozu, Y. (2002).  Effects of fragrance inhalation on sympathetic activity in normal adults.  [Online].  Available at:

Valerian Root (Valeriana officinalis) effects on neurotransmitter contents:  Waggas, A.M., (2007). Daily Dose effect of Valerian root extract on some Neurotransmitter contents in different Brain areas of male Albino Rats.  Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 14 (2) 201-214;  [Online] Available at:

Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) sedative effects:  Thumthimthed, S.,  Thisayakorn, K. et al.  (date not shown). Vetiver Oil and Its Sedative Effect.  [Online]. Available at:

Yarrow (Achillea) and its capacity for wound-healing:  Barreto R.S.S. et al. (2014). A Systematic Review of the Wound-Healing Effects of Monoterpenes and Iridoid Derivatives. [Online].  Available at:

Yarrow (Achillea) and its capacity for wound-healing:  Agar, O.T., Dikmen, M. et al. (2015).  Comparative Studies on Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant, Wound Healing and Cytotoxic Activities of Selected Achillea L. Species Growing in Turkey.  Molecules. 20(10), 17976-18000; doi:10.3390/molecules201017976